IBS & Leaky gut

-stress
-coffee (if you’re Celiac/NCGS. irritates the gut. 10% of coffee is a protein that cross-reacts with gluten antibodies – which means your body thinks coffee is gluten!)
-conventional dairy

+sunlight (vit d required for epithelial barrier to prevent stuff getting through.. also, some bacteria area able to interfere with VDR to lower vit-d levels.1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the ‘oxidative burst’ potential of macrophages )

+vitamin A (Vitamin A has a relationship with the gut lining,)
+Okra pepsin
+digestive enzymes
+l-glutamine (helps rebuild gut lining)
+herbal teas (peppermint, ginger, slippery elm, marshmallow, kudzu)
+licorice root (helps repair guide mucosal lining)
+aloe Vera Juice (if it doesn’t cause loose stool)
+mg (glycinate / malate forms)
+ox bile/bile salts (if no gallbladder)
+phosphatidylcholine (enhances GI lining integrity. repairs mucosal lining)
+quercetin (antioxidant. promotes immunity)
+selenium
+zinc
+zinc carnosine (may induce gut mucosa & lining integrity)
+gelatin (bone broth)

“Over the past decade, numerous studies have shown that many Americans have low vitamin D levels and as a result, vitamin D supplement use has climbed in recent years. Vitamin D has been shown to boost bone health and it may play a role in preventing diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and other illnesses. In light of the increased use of vitamin D supplements, Mayo Clinic researchers set out to learn more about the health of those with high vitamin D levels. They found that toxic levels are actually rare…We found that even in those with high levels of vitamin D over 50 ng/mL, there was not an increased risk of hypercalcemia, or elevated serum calcium, with increasing levels of vitamin D” — Mayo Clinic Proceedings, summary (full text)

“VDR (Vitamin D Receptor) signaling on immune function has been the focus of many recent studies as a link between 1,25(OH)2D3 and susceptibility to various infections and to development of a variety of inflammatory diseases has been suggested. It is also becoming increasingly clear that microbes slow down immune reactivity by dysregulating the VDR ultimately to increase their chance of survival.” — PubMed #PMC3684798

Besides getting enough Vitamin D, it is also important to be able to utilize it. A very small minority of people are born with a defective in the CYP27B1 gene that codes for VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). In the elderly mitochondrial dysfunction can cause CYP27B1 to not function properly. But what is most fascinating is the thought that some microbes may have the ability to interfere with vitamin D utilization by dysregulating VDR. This would not only protect the microorganism but cause additional diseases to take hold, even making someone much more susceptible to the flu. However, it may be possible to overcome VDR dysregulation in some cases by increasing Vitamin D intake (PubMed #PMC2553887) to compensate.

“VDR plays a critical role in mucosal barrier homeostasis by preserving the integrity of junction complexes and the healing capacity of the colonic epithelium. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency may compromise the mucosal barrier, leading to increased susceptibility to mucosal damage and increased risk of IBD…D3 markedly enhanced tight junctions formed by Caco-2 monolayers by increasing junction protein expression and TER and preserved the structural integrity of tight junctions” — PubMed #17962355

“Our recent studies unveil a regulatory circuit that centers gut epithelial VDR as a key molecule in the control of mucosal inflammation and colitis development. On the one hand, intestinal epithelial VDR signaling protects the integrity of the mucosal barrier by inhibiting inflammation-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. This barrier-protecting, anti-colitic activity is independent of the non-epithelial immune VDR actions. A healthy and intact mucosal barrier prevents bacterial invasion and thus reduces mucosal inflammation. On the other hand, inflammation in turn down-regulates epithelial VDR expression by inducing VDR-targeting microRNA-346, thus compromising mucosal barrier functions. Consistently, colonic epithelial VDR levels are markedly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or in experimental colitis models, whereas vitamin D analog therapy that ameliorates colitis up-regulates epithelial VDR. Thus, gut epithelial VDR signaling appears to play an essential role in controlling mucosal inflammation and thus could be a useful therapeutic target in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.” — PubMed #25603468

“The anti-inflammation and anti-infection functions for Vitamin D are newly identified and highly significant activities. Vitamin D/VDR have multiple critical functions in regulating the response to intestinal homeostasis, tight junctions, pathogen invasion, commensal bacterial colonization, antimicrobe peptide secretion, and mucosal defense. Interestingly, microorganisms modulate the VDR (Vitamin D Receptor) signaling pathway.” — PubMed #PMC2955835

“Many studies have implicated Vitamin D and VDR in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Low Vitamin D levels have been reported in patients with IBD. The VDR protein is significantly lower in IBD and colitis-associated colon cancer patients… It has also been shown that VDR stabilizes cell tight junction structures in the intestinal epithelial cells; hence, proper functioning of VDR is needed to control intestinal homeostasis…Consistent with its anti-inflammatory role, 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates the expression of many proinflammatory cytokines…. Cells of the gastrointestinal tract, including epithelial cells and lamina propria macrophages, are constantly exposed to lumenal bacteria, which play key roles in normal intestinal development and innate immunity. The intestinal Paneth cells are known to secrete antimicrobial peptides, which are regulated by VDR signaling.” — PubMed #PMC2955835

“The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation.” — PubMed #20639756

“In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a ‘seasonal stimulus’ intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter… 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the ‘oxidative burst’ potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection… An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson’s ‘seasonal stimulus’.” — PubMed #16959053

“The data support the hypothesis that a high vitamin D level, as that found in the summer, acts in a protective manner with respect to influenza as well as pneumonia.: — PubMed #PMC3092571

“Deficiency in vitamin D is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection. As immune cells in autoimmune diseases are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D deficient individuals with autoimmune disease may extend beyond the effects on bone and calcium homeostasis…The implications of vitamin D deficiency on the immune system have become clearer in recent years and in the context of vitamin D deficiency, there appears to be an increased susceptibility to infection and a diathesis, in a genetically susceptible host to autoimmunity” — PubMed #PMC3166406

“One report studied almost 19,000 subjects between 1988 and 1994. Individuals with lower vitamin D levels (<30 ng/ml) were more likely to self-report a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with sufficient levels” — PubMed #PMC3166406 “type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to geographic location with a higher incidence of these diseases at higher degrees of latitude. One explanation of this geographical distribution is low exposure to sunlight and hence lower levels of vitamin D” — PubMed #PMC3684798 “Recently, important progress has been made in understanding how the noncanonical activities of Vitamin D influence the pathogenesis and prevention of human disease. Vitamin D and VDR are directly involved in T cell antigen receptor signaling. The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation.” — PubMed #PMC2955835 “low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with serum markers of inflammation that are indicators of cardiac risk.” — PubMed #PMC3012634 “A number of studies have suggested that patients with autoimmune diagnoses are deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) and that consuming greater quantities of vitamin D, which further elevates 25 D levels, alleviates autoimmune disease symptoms… the Vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) affects transcription of at least 913 genes…symptomatic improvements among those administered vitamin D is the result of 25-D’s ability to temper bacterial-induced inflammation” — Pubmed #19393200 “The VDR is nearly ubiquitously expressed, and almost all cells respond to 1,25-(OH)2D exposure; about 3% of the mouse or human genome is regulated, directly and/or indirectly, by the vitamin D endocrine system… The immune system of VDR- or vitamin D-deficient mice is grossly normal but shows increased sensitivity to autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or type 1 diabetes after exposure to predisposing factors… Vitamin D deficiency in humans is associated with increased prevalence of diseases… ” — PubMed #PMC2583388

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