IBS & Leaky gut

-stress
-coffee (if you’re Celiac/NCGS. irritates the gut. 10% of coffee is a protein that cross-reacts with gluten antibodies – which means your body thinks coffee is gluten!)
-conventional dairy

+sunlight (vit d required for epithelial barrier to prevent stuff getting through.. also, some bacteria area able to interfere with VDR to lower vit-d levels.1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the ‘oxidative burst’ potential of macrophages )

+vitamin A (Vitamin A has a relationship with the gut lining,)
+Okra pepsin
+digestive enzymes
+l-glutamine (helps rebuild gut lining)
+herbal teas (peppermint, ginger, slippery elm, marshmallow, kudzu)
+licorice root (helps repair guide mucosal lining)
+aloe Vera Juice (if it doesn’t cause loose stool)
+mg (glycinate / malate forms)
+ox bile/bile salts (if no gallbladder)
+phosphatidylcholine (enhances GI lining integrity. repairs mucosal lining)
+quercetin (antioxidant. promotes immunity)
+selenium
+zinc
+zinc carnosine (may induce gut mucosa & lining integrity)
+gelatin (bone broth)

“Over the past decade, numerous studies have shown that many Americans have low vitamin D levels and as a result, vitamin D supplement use has climbed in recent years. Vitamin D has been shown to boost bone health and it may play a role in preventing diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and other illnesses. In light of the increased use of vitamin D supplements, Mayo Clinic researchers set out to learn more about the health of those with high vitamin D levels. They found that toxic levels are actually rare…We found that even in those with high levels of vitamin D over 50 ng/mL, there was not an increased risk of hypercalcemia, or elevated serum calcium, with increasing levels of vitamin D” — Mayo Clinic Proceedings, summary (full text)

“VDR (Vitamin D Receptor) signaling on immune function has been the focus of many recent studies as a link between 1,25(OH)2D3 and susceptibility to various infections and to development of a variety of inflammatory diseases has been suggested. It is also becoming increasingly clear that microbes slow down immune reactivity by dysregulating the VDR ultimately to increase their chance of survival.” — PubMed #PMC3684798

Besides getting enough Vitamin D, it is also important to be able to utilize it. A very small minority of people are born with a defective in the CYP27B1 gene that codes for VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). In the elderly mitochondrial dysfunction can cause CYP27B1 to not function properly. But what is most fascinating is the thought that some microbes may have the ability to interfere with vitamin D utilization by dysregulating VDR. This would not only protect the microorganism but cause additional diseases to take hold, even making someone much more susceptible to the flu. However, it may be possible to overcome VDR dysregulation in some cases by increasing Vitamin D intake (PubMed #PMC2553887) to compensate.

“VDR plays a critical role in mucosal barrier homeostasis by preserving the integrity of junction complexes and the healing capacity of the colonic epithelium. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency may compromise the mucosal barrier, leading to increased susceptibility to mucosal damage and increased risk of IBD…D3 markedly enhanced tight junctions formed by Caco-2 monolayers by increasing junction protein expression and TER and preserved the structural integrity of tight junctions” — PubMed #17962355

“Our recent studies unveil a regulatory circuit that centers gut epithelial VDR as a key molecule in the control of mucosal inflammation and colitis development. On the one hand, intestinal epithelial VDR signaling protects the integrity of the mucosal barrier by inhibiting inflammation-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. This barrier-protecting, anti-colitic activity is independent of the non-epithelial immune VDR actions. A healthy and intact mucosal barrier prevents bacterial invasion and thus reduces mucosal inflammation. On the other hand, inflammation in turn down-regulates epithelial VDR expression by inducing VDR-targeting microRNA-346, thus compromising mucosal barrier functions. Consistently, colonic epithelial VDR levels are markedly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or in experimental colitis models, whereas vitamin D analog therapy that ameliorates colitis up-regulates epithelial VDR. Thus, gut epithelial VDR signaling appears to play an essential role in controlling mucosal inflammation and thus could be a useful therapeutic target in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.” — PubMed #25603468

“The anti-inflammation and anti-infection functions for Vitamin D are newly identified and highly significant activities. Vitamin D/VDR have multiple critical functions in regulating the response to intestinal homeostasis, tight junctions, pathogen invasion, commensal bacterial colonization, antimicrobe peptide secretion, and mucosal defense. Interestingly, microorganisms modulate the VDR (Vitamin D Receptor) signaling pathway.” — PubMed #PMC2955835

“Many studies have implicated Vitamin D and VDR in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Low Vitamin D levels have been reported in patients with IBD. The VDR protein is significantly lower in IBD and colitis-associated colon cancer patients… It has also been shown that VDR stabilizes cell tight junction structures in the intestinal epithelial cells; hence, proper functioning of VDR is needed to control intestinal homeostasis…Consistent with its anti-inflammatory role, 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates the expression of many proinflammatory cytokines…. Cells of the gastrointestinal tract, including epithelial cells and lamina propria macrophages, are constantly exposed to lumenal bacteria, which play key roles in normal intestinal development and innate immunity. The intestinal Paneth cells are known to secrete antimicrobial peptides, which are regulated by VDR signaling.” — PubMed #PMC2955835

“The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation.” — PubMed #20639756

“In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a ‘seasonal stimulus’ intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter… 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the ‘oxidative burst’ potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection… An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson’s ‘seasonal stimulus’.” — PubMed #16959053

“The data support the hypothesis that a high vitamin D level, as that found in the summer, acts in a protective manner with respect to influenza as well as pneumonia.: — PubMed #PMC3092571

“Deficiency in vitamin D is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection. As immune cells in autoimmune diseases are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D deficient individuals with autoimmune disease may extend beyond the effects on bone and calcium homeostasis…The implications of vitamin D deficiency on the immune system have become clearer in recent years and in the context of vitamin D deficiency, there appears to be an increased susceptibility to infection and a diathesis, in a genetically susceptible host to autoimmunity” — PubMed #PMC3166406

“One report studied almost 19,000 subjects between 1988 and 1994. Individuals with lower vitamin D levels (<30 ng/ml) were more likely to self-report a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with sufficient levels” — PubMed #PMC3166406 “type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to geographic location with a higher incidence of these diseases at higher degrees of latitude. One explanation of this geographical distribution is low exposure to sunlight and hence lower levels of vitamin D” — PubMed #PMC3684798 “Recently, important progress has been made in understanding how the noncanonical activities of Vitamin D influence the pathogenesis and prevention of human disease. Vitamin D and VDR are directly involved in T cell antigen receptor signaling. The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation.” — PubMed #PMC2955835 “low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with serum markers of inflammation that are indicators of cardiac risk.” — PubMed #PMC3012634 “A number of studies have suggested that patients with autoimmune diagnoses are deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) and that consuming greater quantities of vitamin D, which further elevates 25 D levels, alleviates autoimmune disease symptoms… the Vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) affects transcription of at least 913 genes…symptomatic improvements among those administered vitamin D is the result of 25-D’s ability to temper bacterial-induced inflammation” — Pubmed #19393200 “The VDR is nearly ubiquitously expressed, and almost all cells respond to 1,25-(OH)2D exposure; about 3% of the mouse or human genome is regulated, directly and/or indirectly, by the vitamin D endocrine system… The immune system of VDR- or vitamin D-deficient mice is grossly normal but shows increased sensitivity to autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or type 1 diabetes after exposure to predisposing factors… Vitamin D deficiency in humans is associated with increased prevalence of diseases… ” — PubMed #PMC2583388 l-glutamine is the preferred fuel source for the cells of the small intestine and has been shown to support the regeneration and repair of the intestinal lining. It has been shown to increase the number of cells in the small intestine and the number of villi on those cells, as well as the height of the villi. Studies have shown L-glutamine reduced permeability of the lining that accompanies leaky gut patterns that promote intestinal inflammation and the development of delayed food intolerances. Deglycyrhizinated licorice Deglycyrrhizinated licorice is a popular and substantially studied natural compound with flavonoids that helps repair the gastric and intestinal lining. Many different mechanisms have been shown with regard to its restorative properties, including stimulation and differentiation of glandular cells, protective mucus formation, protective mucus secretion, increased intestinal blood flow, and growth and regeneration of intestinal lining cells. Aloe leaf extract Aloe leaf extract contains natural phytochemicals and powerful antioxidant properties that reduce intestinal inflammation, soothe the intestines, aid in intestinal wound healing, and have an anti-ulcer effect. It also appears to have antifungal properties, support cholinergic intestinal motility, and reduce intestinal pain and discomfort. Tillandsia also known as Spanish moss, has historically been used for intestinal irritation and allergies. Research on the plant has identified rich sources of flavonoids and other phytochemicals that provide antimicrobial activity and free radical Scavenging properties. Marshmallow extract Marshmallow extract has high content of mucilage that can sooth and help heal compromised intestinal barrier tissue. It is also rich in antioxidants that can support healing of tissue. It is has properties that inhibit hyaluronidase, the enzyme involved in the break down of hyaluronic acid, which promotes intestinal tissue destruction Methylsulfonyimethane (MSM) is a rich source of natural sulfur that acts as a substrate for the antioxidant defense systems as well as support for substrates for hepatic phase II sulfation pathways. It has antifungal and anti-inflammatory propertiess that help support the compromised liver-gut axis. Gamma oryzanol is a mixture of plant sterols and ferulic acid esters from rice. It has been demonstrated to be a powerful antioxidant. Numerous papers have shown its effectiveness for gastrointestinal complaints, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and non-specific gastrointestinal conditions. It has also been shown to modulate and support the enteric nervous system in its ability to activate intestinal motility and secrete digestive enzymes. Slippery elm bark Slippery elm bark is very high in natural mucilage and helpful in soothing inflamed intestinal cells. It reduces contact of inflammatory proteins with the intestinal mucosa, thereby enhancing recovery from intestinal barrier compromise and inflammation. German chamomile The chief constituent of German chamomile has been identified as esters of angelica root and tiglic acid, together with amyl and isobutyl alcohols. These constituents have been shown to enhance wound healing time and modulate prostaglandins and nitric oxide activity to provide gastric and intestinal protection. Marigold flower extract Marigold flower extract constituents include saponins, carotenoids, flavonoids, mucilage, bitter principle, phytosterols, polysaccharides, and resin. It has been used historically for varied gastrointestinal complaints. It provides substrates for digestive enzyme production, reduces inflammation, and provides antibacterial activity. PROBIOTICS AND LEAKY GUT If a probiotic must be refrigerated its integrity in the warm, acidic environment of the stomach is questionable. Therefore, I prefer shelf-stable strains that can withstand stomach acid so they survive intact to inoculate the upper and lower intestines. I go for probiotics that reduce intestinal ammonia, improve intestinal pH, increase short chain fatty acids, and improve the balance of healthy bacteria in the intestines. The strains below appear to combat toxins, candida, and bacterial infection, as well as nourish intestinal cells. I also find arabinogalactan, a compound made up of protein and sugar, helpful for immune support. In addition to being a food supply for friendly bacteria, it also has been shown to stimulate and modulate the function of immune cells. Saccharomyces boulardii Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast and is resistant to stomach acid, bile, and pancreatic juices so it can tolerate varying pH levels of the intestines, unlike common probiotics, and inoculate the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts effectively. Additionally, antibiotics have no impact on these organisms so the two can be taken together without contraindications. There are more than 200 papers published on the benefits of this probiotic. Numerous randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled studies have shown Saccharomyces boulardi's efficacy for diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal infection, and inflammatory bowel conditions. Lactobacillus sporogenes Lactobacillus sporogenes is a gram-positive, spore-forming, lactic-acid producing bacillus. It has the ability to pass through the stomach in its spore form and multiply rapidly in the intestines. The mechanism of action is thought to help replenish the quantity of desirable obligate microorganisms. At the same time it provides antagonizing effects on pathogenic microorganisms. Lactobacilli acidophilus The DDS-1 Lactobacilli acidophilus strain has been investigated extensively and is considered the most stable bacterial probiotic resistant to adverse conditions such as heat, humidity, oxygen, and light. The DDS-1 strain produces natural antibiotic acidophilin and inhibits the growth of 23 toxin-producing microorganisms. It also produces enzymes to digest protein, fat, and lactase and produces B vitamins, folic acid and B- 12. Lastly, it produces hydrogen peroxide to fight adverse bacterial and yeast overgrowth. Numerous papers have found it effective for diarrhea, intestinal bacteria and yeast overgrowths, and intestinal inflammation. Arabinogalactan is a highly-branched polysaccharide that is non-digestible and resists breakdown by intestinal enzymes, so it can populate the large intestine and ferment into powerful supportive colonic bacteria. It has been shown to increase the production of healthy and beneficial microorganisms including short-chain fatty acids and beneficial microflora. It has also been shown to decrease the adverse generation of intestinal ammonia. Lastly, these compounds have.

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